In the period between the two wars, there was an important migratory trend that combined difficulties in the agricultural world with highly political reasons. A significant change in the social fabric added to a transformation in rural settlement conditions, with the population shift in the villages and towns in the foothills and on the plain, with the movement of individuals as well as whole families to other European countries and beyond. The consistency of the migratory phenomenon reached its peak in the years 1929-30 and is connected to theworsening of social conflict and the Fascist regime’s objective of persecuting political dissent.Members of the Livi family wereamong the politically-motivated expatriates, including Ivo, the “Frenchman from Monsummano” later known as Yves Montand. The Valdinievole began to redress the loss relating to the migratory movement. In fact, those municipalities (Monsummano Terme and Montecatini Terme, followed by Pieve a Nievole and Massa e Cozzile) that, not surprisingly, were more invested in developing the manufacturing industry (footwear in Monsummano) and the service sector were particularly affected by the flows arriving from southern Italy (Sicily, Campania, etc.) as well as from other provinces in Tuscany. Between 1951 and 1961, Monsummano Terme’s population saw a significant increase that even surpassed that for the entire period of 1901-1951, with the number of inhabitants increasing from 9,708 (in 1951) to 11,631 (in 1961).